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## HYDRUS Documentation and Books

- HYDRUS Technical Manual and User's Manual
- HYDRUS Online Help
- Radcliffe and Simunek: Soil Physics with HYDRUS
- Rassam et al.: Modelling Variably-Saturated Flow with HYDRUS-2D
- HYDRUS workshops Proceedings

## Soil Physics with HYDRUS

**Published: May 26 2010****Table of Contents**

- Book Description
- Book Errata
- Software simulations described in the text
- MS Excel files for examples described in the text
- MS Excel files for problems described in the text
- Book Reference
- HYDRUS book PowerPoint slides for teaching
- Teaching videos for simple laboratory experiments
- Answers to Selected Chapter Problems
- Where to buy

**Book Description**

Numerical models have become much more efficient, making their application to problems increasingly widespread. User-friendly interfaces make the setup of a model much easier and more intuitive while increased computer speed can solve difficult problems in a matter of minutes. Co-authored by the software’s creator, Jirka Šimůnek, **Soil Physics with HYDRUS: Modeling and Applications** demonstrates one- and two-dimensional simulations and computer animations of numerical models using the HYDRUS software.

Classroom-tested at the University of Georgia by Dr. David Radcliffe, this volume includes numerous examples and homework problems. It provides students with access to the HYDRUS-1D program as well as the Rosetta Module, which contains large volumes of information on the hydraulic properties of soils. The authors use HYDRUS-1D for problems that demonstrate infiltration, evaporation, and percolation of water through soils of different textures and layered soils. They also use it to show heat flow and solute transport in these systems, including the effect of physical and chemical nonequilibrium conditions. The book includes examples of two-dimensional flow in fields, hillslopes, boreholes, and capillary fringes using HYDRUS (2D/3D). It demonstrates the use of two other software packages, RETC and STANMOD, that complement the HYDRUS series.

Hands-on use of the windows-based codes has proven extremely effective when learning the principles of water and solute movement, even for users with very little direct knowledge of soil physics and related disciplines and with limited mathematical expertise. Suitable for teaching an undergraduate or lower level graduate course in soil physics or vadose zone hydrology, the text can also be used for self-study on how to use the HYDRUS models. Using the information in this book, users can run models for different scenarios and with different parameters, thus gaining a better understanding of the physics of water flow and contaminant transport. **Preface**

In 1985, Gaylon Campbell published a slim volume entitled **Soil Physics with Basic** (Campbell, 1985). This textbook was one of the first and best publications to show the potential for numerical computer models to solve applied problems in the field of soil physics. Since that time, numerical models and computers have come a long way. Numerical models have become much more efficient and can now be applied to two- and three-dimensional problems of saturated and unsaturated water flow, heat flow, and solute transport. User-friendly interfaces have been developed that make the setup of the model much easier and more intuitive. The interfaces are especially helpful in displaying the model output of two- and three-dimensional simulations in a way that is immediately intelligible to students, including the use of computer animation. Computer speed has increased to the point that very difficult problems can be solved within a matter of hours, including powerful inverse methods that could only be applied to analytical solutions in the past.

One of the most advanced and popular numerical computer models for the field of soil physics is the HYDRUS series: HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS (2D/3D). In our conversations with soil physicists teaching undergraduate and graduate courses in soil physics and vadose zone hydrology across the US, Europe, Australia, and Asia we have found that many are using HYDRUS models in some portion of their course. We developed this textbook to use the HYDRUS models to teach the principles and applications of soil physics. The HYDRUS models include the Rosseta-based pedotransfer functions, which we use to illustrate soil water characteristic curve relationships and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions. HYDRUS-1D is used for hands-on problems that demonstrate infiltration, evaporation, and percolation of water through soils of different textures and layered soils. It is also used to show heat flow and solute transport in these systems, including the effect of physical and chemical nonequilibrium conditions. Examples of two-dimensional flow in fields, hillslopes, boreholes, and capillary fringes are included using HYDRUS (2D/3D). Use of two other software packages that complement the HYDRUS series is shown. One of these is the Code for Quantifying the Hydraulic Functions of Unsaturated Soils (RETC; van Genuchten et al., 1991), used to fit soil water retention curves. The other is the Studio of Analytical Models for Solving the Convection-Dispersion Equation (STANMOD; Toride et al., 1999) which uses analytical solutions to solve solute transport problems. The HYDRUS models, RETC, and STANMOD can be downloaded here.

There are many excellent packages such as Mathcad (Parametric Technology Corporation) and Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) that can be used in conjunction with a soil physics textbook. However, as discussed by Wraith and Or (1998), the learning curve for using these packages is steep and the packages can be expensive. On the other hand, most students are familiar with Microsoft Excel and have it on their computers. Our experience has been that students are very receptive to learning “new tricks” with Excel. With a little work, Excel can be used to accomplish many of the tasks that the math software packages would be used for in a soil physics course (including matrix computations) and we use it throughout this textbook.

Our textbook should be suitable for teaching an undergraduate or a lower level graduate course in soil physics or vadose zone hydrology. It assumes that students are familiar with differential and integral calculus. However, a course could be taught to students with only differential calculus since derivations involving integral calculus appear at the end of each chapter and could be optional for students. The textbook should also be suitable for an individual who wants to teach herself/himself about the field of soil physics and how to use the HYDRUS models.

Comparing our textbook to the other excellent soil physics textbooks available, our book is not as quantitative as the books by Warrick (2003) or Tindall and Kunkel (1999). It is comparable to the books by Hillel (2004) and Jury and Horton (2004). Little detail on measurement methods is included as these methods change rapidly and there are excellent references (e.g., Dane and Topp, 2002). Gas flow is not treated in this book (except for the volatilization of solutes). This is because the HYDRUS models do not simulate gas flow, other than carbon dioxide transport in the specialized UNSATCHEM module. In our opinion, the primary contribution of this textbook is in the extensive use of the HYDRUS and related models to teach soil physics.

### Discussion Forum

We are initiating a Discussion Forum on the book “Soil Physics with HYDRUS” published in 2010. The purpose of the forum is to answer questions or receive comments about the book. We would like to focus on using the HYDRUS family of models to teach soil physics, but more general topics related to the book are also welcome.

### Software simulations described in the text

Program | # | Description | Downloads |
---|---|---|---|

RETC | 2.1 | Soil Hydraulic Properties of the Cecil Ap Horizon | zip |

RETC | 3.1 | Rosetta-Lite Module | zip |

HYDRUS-1D | 4.1 | Heat Flow Without Convection | zip |

HYDRUS-1D | 5.1 | Ponded Infiltration | zip |

HYDRUS-1D | 5.2 | Flux Infiltration | zip |

HYDRUS-1D | 5.3 | Infiltration into Layered System | zip |

HYDRUS (2D/3D) | 5.4 | 2D Infiltration into Layered System | zip (1.3 Mb) |

HYDRUS (2D/3D) | 5.5 | Borehole Infiltration | zip (3.1 Mb) |

HYDRUS (2D/3D) | 5.6 | Subsurface Drip Irrigation | zip (0.5 Mb) |

HYDRUS-1D | 5.7 | Redistribution | zip |

HYDRUS-1D | 5.8 | Evaporation | zip |

HYDRUS-1D | 5.9 | Transpiration |
zip Data |

HYDRUS (2D/3D) | 5.10 | Infiltration into a Heterogeneous Soil Profile (scaling and preferential flow) | zip (9.3 Mb) |

HYDRUS (2D/3D) | 5.11 | Capillary Barrier | zip (2.0 Mb) |

HYDRUS (2D/3D) | 5.12 | Hillslope A (lower Ks) | zip (1.8 Mb) |

HYDRUS (2D/3D) | 5.13 | Hillslope B (higher Ks) | zip (1.6 Mb) |

HYDRUS-1D | 5.14 | Parameter Estimation |
zip Data |

STANMOD | 6.1 | Effect of Beta | zip |

STANMOD | 6.2 | Parameter Optimization | zip |

HYDRUS-1D | 6.1 | Nonlinear Adsorption and Transport | zip |

HYDRUS-1D | 6.2 | Transport of Nitrogen Species | zip (1.8 Mb) |

HYDRUS-1D | 6.3 | Parameter Optimization of Nitrogen Species Model | zip |

HYDRUS (2D/3D) | 6.4 | Capillary Fringe | zip |

Download all HYDRUS-1D examples (zip, 1.1 Mb).

Download all HYDRUS (2D/3D) examples (zip, 21 Mb).

### MS Excel files for examples described in the text

Examples | Description | Downloads |
---|---|---|

Example 2.2 | Capillary rise | xls |

Example 2.10 | Plant available water (PAW) | xls |

Example 3.3 | Capillary length and numerical integration | xls |

Example 4.3 | Effect of thermal diffusivity on heat transport | xls |

Example 5.2 | Cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate | xls |

Example 6.2 | Solute transport analytical solution | xls |

Download all Excel Examples (zip).

=== MS Excel files for problems described in the text ====

Examples | Description | Downloads |
---|---|---|

Problem 2.10 | Retention curve | xls |

Problem 2.12 | Neutron probe calibration equation | xls |

Problem 2.13 | Volumetric water content vs. apparent permittivity | xls |

Problem 2.14 | Retention curve data for Problem 2.14 | xls |

Problem 3.4 | Retention curve and hydraulic concuctivity data for Problem 3.4 | xls |

Problem 3.6 | Capillary length and numerical integration | xls |

Problem 3.7 | Effective saturated hydraulic conductivity, Keff | xls |

Problem 4.4 | Analytical solution for the temperature as a function of time and depth | xls |

Problem 4.5 | Analytical solution for the temperature as a function of time and depth | xls |

Problem 4.11 | Numerical solution (explicit scheme) of the heat transport equation | xls |

Problem 4.12 | Numerical solution (fully implicit scheme) of the heat transport equation | xls |

Problem 5.3 | The effect of antecedent moisture content on infiltration rate | xls |

Problem 6.1 | Tortuosity in the liquid and gas phase as a function of θ | xls |

Problem 6.5 | Solute transport analytical solution | xls |

Download all Excel Problems (zip).

### Reference

Radcliffe, D., and J. Šimůnek, Soil Physics with HYDRUS: Modeling and Applications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, ISBN-10: 142007380X, ISBN-13: 9781420073805, pp. 373, 2010.

### Additional HYDRUS Tutorials, Examples, and Test Problems

Check out additional HYDRUS tutorials, examples, and test problems:

HYDRUS-1D examples

HYDRUS-1D tutorials

HYDRUS (2D/3D) examples

HYDRUS (2D/3D) tutorials

### HYDRUS Book PowerPoint Slides for Teaching

PowerPoint files with all equations, tables, and figures:

Chapter 1: Soil Solid Phase

Chapter 2: Soil Water Content and Potential

Chapter 3: Steady Water Flow in Soils

Chapter 4: Heat Flow in Soils

Chapter 5: Transient Water Flow in Soils

Chapter 6a: Solute Transport in Soils

Chapter 6b: Solute Transport in Soils

### YouTube Videos Showing Basic Laboratory Experiments

Soil sampling, bulk density, and water content

Soil water curve

Permanent wilting point

Particle size distribution

TDR

Tensiometers

Temperature

### Where to buy

The book is not distributed by PC Progress. It is distributed by the publisher CRC Press and other distributors, such as Amazon, CRC Press, and Taylor & Francis.

## Modelling Variably-Saturated Flow with HYDRUS-2D

Rassam, D., J. Šimůnek, and M. Th. van Genuchten, Modeling Variably Saturated Flow with HYDRUS-2D , ND Consult, Brisbane, Australia, 261pp., ISBN 0-646-42309-6, 2003.

We keep on getting requests for the HYDRUS-2D book written by David Rassam at al. (2003) (Modelling Variably Saturated Flow with HYDRUS-2D). Since this book is already for many years out of print, David has graciously agreed to make it public in the PDF format online. Please note that examples discussed in this book were carried out with an earlier version of HYDRUS (i.e., HYDRUS-2D) and thus input windows and formatting of output files may be slightly different. We have converted these examples for Version 2.05 of HYDRUS (2D/3D). However, we have not again checked correctness of all these examples.

Introduction Examples

Section 1 Examples

Section 2 Examples

Section 3 Examples

Section 4 Examples

Section 5 Examples

Section 6 Examples

Appendices Examples

Additional Examples

## HYDRUS workshops Proceedings

- Proceedings of the First HYDRUS Workshop, October 19, 2005, S. Torkzaban and S. M. Hassanizadeh (eds.), Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, ISBN 90-39341125,
**PDF document, size 4MB**.

- Proceedings of the Second HYDRUS Workshop, March 28, 2008, J. Šimůnek and R. Kodešová (eds.) (eds.), Dept. of Soil Science and Geology, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic, ISBN 978-80-213-1783-3,
**PDF document, size 3.3MB**.

- Proceedings of the Third HYDRUS Workshop, June 28, 2008, Saito, H., M. Sakai, N. Toride, and J. Šimůnek (eds.), Dept. of Ecoregion Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology, Fuchu Tokyo, Japan, ISBN 978-4-9901192-5-6,
**PDF document, size 7.2MB**.

- Proceedings of the 4th International Conference "HYDRUS Software Applications to Subsurface Flow and Contaminant Transport Problems", Šimůnek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and R. Kodešová (eds.), March 21-22, 2013, Dept. of Soil Science and Geology, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic, ISBN: 978-80-213-2380-3, pp. 404, 2013,
**PDF document, size 16MB**. See Prague 2013 Conference details